This project examines how regulations affect productivity and environmental outcomes. In Canada, oil and gas production on First Nations land is federally regulated while production elsewhere is provincially regulated. The rules governing production on First Nations land remained effectively the same from their enactment in 1974 until 2019, while provincial rules have been continually updated to reflect industry and technological developments. Using longitudinal data on oil and gas well production and environmental incidents, we compare the implications of two regulatory regimes within Alberta. Our results will shed light on some of the ways in which First Nations have been impacted by federal control over energy projects. This information could be used to advance Indigenous energy sovereignty and economic autonomy, with applications in a range of industries.